·The national six emission standards will be implemented by the end of 2016

·The national six emission standards will be implemented by the end of 2016

At the beginning of September, during the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese Anti-Japanese War and the World Anti-Fascist War, the pollutant emissions in the air in Beijing and surrounding areas were reduced by more than 30%, making the sky blue as the sea during the day and star-studded at night. They are called "parade blue." But in the past two weeks, the smog has reappeared over Beijing, and environmental issues have once again become a topic of concern.

At the China Automotive Industry Development (TEDA) International Forum, Xiao Xiaofei, Director of the Science and Technology Standards Department of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, revealed that the sixth phase of the emission standards (hereinafter referred to as the “National Six Standards”) will be finalized and implemented by the end of 2016. According to the current environmental protection requirements, the “National Six Standards” will further tighten the emission limits of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. The overall goal is to tighten the national standard by 30%.

At the same time, Beijing is also formulating the most stringent sixth-stage emission standards in the world (hereinafter referred to as the “Beijing Six Standards”), and strives to implement them in 2017. It is reported that Beijing will gradually improve the emission standards of new vehicles, improve the quality of gasoline and diesel oil products, strengthen the management of vehicles up to standard, speed up the elimination of old vehicles, and achieve a continuous decline in the total amount of emissions.

National Six standards are more in line with national conditions

According to the reporter's understanding, the formulation of the “National Six Standards” was initiated in 2014 and started in 2015. The participating units include the Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences, the Mobile Source Base and the Standards Institute. The collaborative units include the China Automotive Technology and Research Center and the Beijing Motor Vehicle. In the process of standard setting, the Emissions Management Center and the Beijing Institute of Technology, in addition to the motor vehicles, also put forward relevant requirements for oil products, so some refining companies also participated in the project.

Yan Xiaofei told reporters: "On the formulation of this standard, we must abide by some basic principles. The first is to consider China's national conditions and ensure that the standards can be practical. We must take into account China's actual road conditions, oil conditions, driving habits. At the same time, standards With reference to the US approach, the role of OBD has been played to ensure that vehicles can reach the standard throughout their life cycle, which can play a greater role in improving environmental quality. Through this standard, we hope to play a role in some VOCs, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, etc. Sexual emission reduction effects. It can also play a leading role in technological advancement and promote the healthy development of the automotive industry."

"Based on such considerations, at present, we can see that if we continue to follow the European standard system, it may be difficult to meet the needs of our environmental management, nor can we solve the difficulties we face, so the future standard is to fully learn from Europe. And some successful experiences in the United States can adjust some key management and technical content while considering standard continuity,” said Xiao Xiaofei.

Yan Xiaofei said that in addition to the PM2.5 pollution that the "National Six Standards" should pay attention to, ozone pollution cannot be ignored. From the first half of the year, the number of days of ozone pollution has exceeded the pollution of PM2.5, and nitrogen oxides and VOCs are important preconditions for ozone. Therefore, the pollution control of motor vehicles should be concerned with conventional particulate matter. Give more attention to the ozone problem.

It is reported that in order to improve the "National Six Standards", the relevant state departments have set up a team of experts to conduct demonstrations and seminars, and completed the translation of Euro VI standards and US standards. At the same time, research on different working conditions and different oil products affected emissions was carried out, and hundreds of emission tests were completed.

Beijing strives to be a pioneer in reducing emissions

While the country is actively developing the “National Six Standards”, Beijing, the hardest hit area for particulate matter PM2.5 pollution, is also working to introduce the most stringent emission standards in the world.

A few days ago, experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences said that PM2.5, a pollutant particulate matter caused by motor vehicle emissions, accounts for about 5%-6% of total pollutants in a city. However, Li Kunsheng, director of the Motor Vehicle Emissions Management Office of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, said: "More than half of the hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles are directly converted into PM2.5, which is why in the big cities of China and foreign countries, motor vehicle pollution. The share of more than 30% is the first source of pollution. Nitrogen oxides are mainly emitted by large-displacement vehicles, while hydrocarbons are mainly emitted by small-displacement vehicles."

It is reported that Beijing based on its own special circumstances, based on the "National Six Standards", based on the most stringent California emission standards in the United States, further developed a more stringent "Beijing Six Standards." While formulating the “Beijing Six Standards”, Beijing has also formed regional linkages in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region on the emission issues in the surrounding areas, and established motor vehicle joint supervision offices with relevant departments of the provinces and cities in the region to conduct cross-enforcement, joint enforcement, and off-site Law enforcement, in August Beijing and surrounding provinces and cities have begun training for relevant environmental protection personnel, and has begun to enter the market for vehicle spot checks.

Li Kunsheng said that the laboratory built by the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau in accordance with the world's most advanced level has been running for several years and has punished some vehicles that exceed the standard. From next year, the penalties will be increased. Any enterprise that violates the regulations will be punished by three times the sales amount. In addition, atmospheric governance will become a key investment in Beijing's finance, and this year will increase to 20 billion yuan on the basis of the investment of 14 billion yuan last year.

Enterprises actively respond to emissions upgrades

In addition to government departments to develop more stringent emission standards, auto companies are also increasing their technology and capital investment to reduce emissions.

Honda Motor Co., Ltd. proposed a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 30% by 2020, and adopted a number of measures. First of all, based on the improvement of gasoline engine and diesel engine technology, we will promote hybrid vehicles that further improve efficiency through electrification. Second, Honda will accelerate the development of pure electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. In addition, in areas other than automobiles, Honda will research renewable energy based on solar energy, biotechnology, and hydrogen fuel.

Similarly, Toyota is also working on energy-related research on alternative petroleum, promoting fuel consumption improvement by improving power transmission efficiency to reduce the resistance of vehicles, and developing a hybrid with a fuel economy of 40% compared with passenger cars of the same class. Car promotion work.

Li Yu, dean of the Wanfeng Auto Holding Group Research Institute, is also making a move for the company. He told reporters: "In order to achieve further energy-saving and emission-reduction effects, auto companies can further innovate in the light weight of motor vehicles. According to estimates, cars For every 100 kilograms of weight reduction, the fuel consumption per 100 kilometers can be reduced by 0.7 liters, and the vehicle's own weight can be reduced by 10%. The fuel efficiency of the vehicle can be increased by 5.5%. In order to achieve this goal, a new material magnesium alloy has appeared on the market and will have the opportunity to become The first choice to replace existing body materials."

This standard replaces GB/T8162-2008 "structure with seamless steel tube". This standard is compared with GB/T8162-2008, the main change is as follows:

This standard is applicable to the general structure and mechanical structure of Seamless Steel Pipe, seamless Steel Pipe, fluid seamless steel pipe standard for the general seamless steel pipe. The main difference between it and the structure of seamless steel tube is the hydraulic test or the ultrasonic, eddy current and magnetic flux leakage testing. Therefore, it is not suitable to use fluid seamless steel pipe in the standard of pressure pipe. Seamless steel pipe for the outside diameter, wall thickness, thick walled seamless steel pipe is mainly used for mechanical processing, coal, hydraulic steel, and other purposes. Thick walled seamless steel pipe is divided into 10#, 20#, 35#, 16Mn, 45#, 12Cr1MoV, 27SiMn, 10CrMo910, 15CrMo, 35CrMo, etc.. The classification of thick walled seamless steel pipe hot rolled thick wall seamless steel pipe, cold rolled thick wall seamless steel pipe, seamless steel tube, cold drawn thick wall extrusion thick wall seamless steel tube, pipe jacking. Stainless steel seamless steel pipe structure (GB/T14975-1994) is widely used in chemical, petroleum, hot-rolled stainless steel made of textile, medical, food, machinery and other industrial anti-corrosion pipes and structural parts and parts of the (extrusion, expansion) and cold drawing (rolling) seamless steel tube.

Photo of our Structural Pipes:

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Scope of use, including the general structure and mechanical structure, a large number of construction, machinery, transportation, aviation, oil and other industries of various structures.

Delamination defect
In view of the mechanism, it is generally believed that the non metallic inclusions in the tube will destroy the continuity and compactness of the 45# structure, and the serious inclusion of the 45# structure will produce delamination. The other one is that the hydrogen induced crack, because of hydrogen in steel aggregation caused by internal gas metal pressure is too high, the formation of white spots in the compact inner tube, the crack occurred in the rolling process, and ultimately the formation of lamination defect. In addition, the uneven deformation of the two roll cross piercing is produced by the stress exceeding the plastic strength.
In the case of strict smelting control, there are third kinds of cases, the control measures:
1, improve the plastic and toughness of 45# steel pipe
Improving the cleanliness of molten steel, reduce harmful inclusions in continuous casting billet; increase the proportion of equiaxed grains, reduce the central segregation and central porosity; the cooling system is reasonable, avoid the slab internal crack; on line slab or billet by slow cooling process, reduce internal stress, in which the microstructure and mechanical properties of pipe billet and finished 45# steel structure meet the technical standard requirements.
2, reasonable control of heating temperature
The best heating temperature was selected by the determination of the thermoplastic curve. Tube billet heating should also pay attention to enough holding time, in order to reduce the deformation resistance and improve the ductility of 45# steel pipe.
3, reduce the roll speed
The roller speed is the key parameter of the perforation process. The roller speed is changed from low to high, and there is a critical roll speed which begins to appear. When the roller rotating speed is low, the tube blank is easy to form a hole cavity. When the roller speed is higher, the tube blank and the 45# structure steel tube are easy to form the delamination defect. In order to eliminate the pipe blank and 45# structure, the roller speed should be reduced to the critical roll speed, which is lower than that of the layer.
Structure tube weight calculation formula: [(outside diameter - wall thickness) * wall thickness of]*0.02466=kg/ meters (weight per meter)

Structural Pipes

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